A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzabar


A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzibar... Now what is between? For the world wide classical era philatelist and stamp collector, a country specific philatelic survey is offered with two albums: Big Blue, aka Scott International Part 1 (checklists available), and Deep Blue, aka William Steiner's Stamp Album Web PDF pages. Interested? So into the Blues...

Monday, August 29, 2016

Turks & Caicos Islands

1900 Scott 9 3sh brown lake
"Dependency's Badge"
Quick History
Turks & Caicos Islands are a group of West Indies islands at the southern end of the Bahamas. But they were separated politically from the Bahamas in 1848, a celebratory date that is well noted on their 1900-08 stamps.

But the celebration of independence should be muted at best, as, in reality, they were under the supervision of Jamaica. In fact, the islands were formally annexed to the Jamaica colony in 1873, and they remained a dependency of Jamaica until 1959.

1948 Scott 97 6p violet  "Map of the Islands"
Centenary of Political Separation from the Bahamas
I have already covered "Quick History" of the islands with the "Turks Islands" blog post, so I will say little more here.

The islands were named after the Turk's cap (head) cactus, and the Lucayo (Bahamian) subdialect "cayo hico" term, which means "string of islands".

The capital was and is Grand Turk, and the population was ~5,600 circa 1910.

1909 Scott 21 2sh red/green "Edward VII"
Into the Deep Blue
The 2014 Scott Classic Specialized 1840-1940 catalogue has, for Turks & Caicos Islands 1900-1950, 130 major descriptive numbers. Of those, 75 are CV <$1-$1+, or 58%. As a British sphere colony, Turks & Caicos Islands stamps are moderately expensive at times, but the WW collector should be able to form a representative collection without much difficulty.

The 1867-1894 earlier stamps for the islands are found under "Turks Islands" in the Scott catalogue, and my just previous "Turks Islands" post reviewed that philatelic era.

One happy circumstance is I happen to have a virtually complete collection in unused condition of Turks & Caicos Islands, so the stamp examples I show off here, contrary to the usual inexpensive variety, will be, at times, of more robust CV. Enjoy!

A closer look at the stamps and issues
12 Pence = 1 Shilling
20 Shillings = 1 Pound
1900 Scott 5 4p orange "Dependency's Badge"
Design A6, Wmk 2
The first issue that is labeled "Turks and Caicos Islands" proper (prior, stamps issued were under "Turks Islands") is the engraved 1900-04 issue of nine stamps. The lower denomination Wmk 2 seven stamps are in "normal" size A6 format, and the 4p orange is shown here.

CV is <$1-$4+ for the lower denomination seven stamps.

Note the proud "1848"  date, which indicates when T & C was politically separated from the Bahamas. (In fact, they were under Jamaica's sphere, formally since 1873. They were never actually "independent".)

Note the hills of salt on the shoreline?

Salt harvesting and raking, because of the shallow waters around the islands, was a prominent activity throughout the 19th century. The salt collectors would come from Bermuda, and generally would stay for six months, then return to Bermuda. This established the islands under British dominance, which began in 1681.

1900 Scott 8 2sh violet, A7 design
"Dependency's Badge"
The two higher denominations for the 1900-04 issue is in an engraved Wmk 1 A7 larger format, with the pictorial vignette the same, but the frame altered.

CV is a hefty $40+-$70.

1905 Scott 10 1/2p green, A6
Wmk 3
Three engraved stamps with the same normal format A6 design, but on Wmk 3 paper, were issued between 1905-08. The 1/2p green and the 1p carmine will need to be checked for watermarks to differentiate them from the similar in color 1900-04 stamps.

(If one needs a refresher on British colonial watermarks, check the Gibraltar or other British colony posts.)

1909 Scott 22 3sh black/red "Edward VII"
The "Edward VII" ten stamp issue was released in 1909.

CV is <$1-$4+ for six stamps.

Turks-Head
I believe that is a Turks-Head Cactus, but flowering, as in the oval lower side panels on the Edward VII issue.

1910 Scott 23 1/4p claret
"Turk's-Head Cactus"
Four stamps showing the "Turks-Head Cactus" were produced in 1910 (1/4p claret). 1911 (1/4p red-wmk 3), 1921 (1/4p red- wmk 4), and 1926 (1/4p gray black).

(Obviously, One Farthing must be 1/4 pence.)

Turks-Head Cactus (Melocactus Intortus)
The cactus is widespread on the islands. The name comes from the spiny red cap, which is thought to resemble a fez (cylindrical red hat).

1916 Scott 31 5p olive green "George V"
Wmk 3
The Turks-Head Cactus motif continues on the lower oval side panels for all of the George V issues.

The  engraved 1913-16 eleven stamp issue, with Wmk 3, has upper shield shaped corner panels for the denomination with a background in white. (This will change, beginning with the 1922 issues.)

CV is <$1-$2+ for eight stamps.

1921 Scott 43 1sh brown orange "George V"
Wmk 4
The 1921 eight stamp issue is similar to the 1913-16 issue, except wmk 4 paper is used.

CV is $1+-$4+ for five stamps.

1922 Scott 50 3p ultramarine "George V"
Inscribed "Postage"
The 1922 -26 fourteen stamp issue (Wmk 4 for the twelve lower denominations, Wmk 3 for the two highest denominations) moves the corner denomination panels to the bottom, and places a "crown" on either side of the upper stamp.

Note the inscribed "Postage".

CV is <$1-$1+ for nine stamps.

1928 Scott 70 10sh violet/blue "George V"
Inscribed "Postage & Revenue"
The March 1, 1928 issue of eleven stamps is now inscribed "Postage & Revenue".

CV is <$1 for seven stamps.

But the Ten Shillings denomination illustrated here is CV $60+.  !

1938 Scott 85 6p rose violet "Raking Salt"
The engraved 1938-45 "George VI" issue (two stamps were released in 1945) consists of fourteen stamps in two designs.

"Raking Salt" is shown on the eleven lower denominations.

"Salt Industry" is pictured on the three highest denominations (fronting the "Out of the Blue" section).

CV is <$1-$2+ for ten stamps.

If one is interested in parsing the George VI 1938-45 issues further, there is a nice internet resource by KGVI Stamps.

1917 Scott MR2 3p violet/yellow
Regular Issue of 1913 Overprinted
Black Overprint at Bottom of Stamp
Turks and Caicos islands are famous (infamous?) for the multiple (13!) War Tax stamps issued between 1917-1919.

The war tax stamps were produced by overprinting in various types/colors on the 1913 Scott 26 1p carmine & 1913 Scott 29 3p violet/yellow "George V" stamps.

MR1 (1p carmine) and MR2 (3p violet/yellow) consisted of a "war tax" overprint, as shown here, on the bottom of the stamp. 

1917 Scott MR3 1p carmine
Regular Issue of 1913 Overprinted
Black Overprint at Top or Middle of Stamp
MR3 (1p carmine) and MR4 (3p violet/yellow) have the same overprint as MR1/MR2, but on the top or middle of the stamp.

1917 Scott MR3a Inverted Overprint
1917 Scott MR3b Double Overprint
There are minor numbers in the Scott catalogue for "Inverted overprint" and "Double overprint", here shown with the MR3 stamp. They catalogue in the $50+-$60+ range. (I have certs from the "B.P.A. Expertising Limited London-England Expert Committee" stating that these are genuine. ;-)

1919 Scott MR5 1p carmine
Same Overprint in Violet
The MR5 (1p carmine) is recognized by a violet overprint, while the MR6 (3p violet/yellow) has a red overprint.

Note that heretofore, all of the overprints style-wise are the same.

1918 Scott MR7 1p carmine
Thick Overprint in Black
The MR7 (1p carmine) and the MR8 ( 3p violet/yellow) is characterized by a bold black overprint.

1919 Scott MR9 3p violet/yellow
Same Thick Overprint in Red
MR9 has a bold red overprint on the 3p violet/yellow stamp.

 1919 Scott MR10 1p carmine
Overprinted in Black
"War" and "Tax" close together
MR10 (1p carmine) and MR11 (3p violet/yellow) have a tall overprint, where "War" and "Tax" are close together.

1919 Scott MR13 3p violet/yellow
Overprinted in Black
"War" and "Tax" wide apart
MR12 (1p carmine) and MR13 (3p violet/yellow) have a tall overprint, but "War" and "Tax" are wide apart.

If one has a number of the wide apart tall MR12 and MR13 stamps, one may want to measure carefully (in mm) the separation between "War" and "Tax". Apparently, the bottom two rows of the setting will show the words "War" and "Tax" 1mm farther apart.

Deep Blue
1950 George VI Pictorial Definitives in Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner) has ten pages for the 1900-1950 stamps of Turks & Caicos islands. Naturally, all major Scott numbers have a space.

1926 Scott 44 1/4p gray black
"Turk's-Head Cactus"
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on 1 1/2 pages, has 51 spaces for the 1900-1938 stamps of Turks & Caicos Islands. The country coverage is located between "Trinidad and Tobago" and "Tripolitania".

Coverage, adjusted for the years 1900-38, is 51%.

Sadly, the '69 editors dropped the four spaces for the 1917-19 War stamps found in the 1940s editions. (Even that was inadequate, as there are actually 13 major number war stamps issued, 11 of which are CV <$1-$1+.)

There are no expensive stamps required ($10+), although the 1925 Scott 47 1 1/2p rose red is close @ CV $9.

Checklist

1900-09
1 or 10, 2,3,(4),(12),

1909
13,14,15,(16),

1910-26*
23,24 or 36,44,
25 or 37,26,27 or 39,28 or 40,29,30,(33),

Next Page

1923-26
45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,

1928
60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,

1935
71,72,73,74,

1937
75,76,77,

1938
78,79,80,81,82,

83,84,85,86,

Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold): None.
B) (    ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.
C) *1910-26- Wmk 3 vs Wmk 4 choices.

1938 Scott 88 5sh green "Salt Industry"
Out of the Blue
I never intended to have a complete collection of classical-era Turks & Caicos Islands when I began the WW quest.  Heck, I doubt I even knew about Turks & Caicos Islands. ;-) Serendipity, chance, luck, and openness to possibilities lures the collector down alleys and byways. The journey is truly the reward with WW collecting!

Note: Cactus pics appear to be in the public domain.

Have a comment?

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Turks Islands

1889 Scott 55 1p on 2 1/2p red brown "Victoria"
Quick History
Two groups of islands in the northern Caribbean (The larger Caicos Islands and the smaller Turks Islands), separated by the Turks Passage (2,200 m or 7,200 ft deep), have always been associated with each other. But Grand Turk Island was the first island colonized by Bermudians for the salt industry in 1681. Cockburn Town became the capital in 1766, and Grand Turk Island- sometimes referred to historically as "Grand Cay" - remains the cultural and historical center of the islands group.

Turks Islands & Caicos Islands
Stamps were issued for the island groups under "Turks Islands" from 1867-1894, while "Turks and Caicos Islands" labeled stamps were issued after 1900. As the Scott catalogue has separate discrete sections for each era, I will focus on "Turks Islands" here, and the next blog post will take up the "Turks and Caicos Islands" issues.

As mentioned, the Turks Islands were noted for salt, which was mined by raking salt among the shallow waters around the islands, and that industry drove the initial settlement in 1681. After the American War of Independence, British loyalists were the first settlers in 1783 on the Caicos Islands.

The Islands group became part of the Bahamas in 1799. (Bermuda and the Bahamas had both desired the islands for themselves, and "ownership" was disputed between the two throughout the 18th century.) The Turks and Caicos became a separate colony in 1848, under the supervision of Jamaica. Then the Islands group was annexed to the Jamaica colony in 1873. They remained a dependency of Jamaica until 1959.

The Islands group has never had much of a population. Even today, Grand Turk Island has only 4,000+ people, while Providenciales Island, with the largest population in the Caicos, has 33,000+.

Presently, the Turks and Caicos is a British Overseas Territory, and, since 2002, the inhabitants have full British citizenship.

Location of  Turks and Caicos Islands in the northern Caribbean Sea
Into the Deep Blue
The 2014 Scott Classic Specialized 1840-1940 catalogue has, for Turks Islands 1867-1894, 58 major number descriptions.

Of those, eight stamps are CV $2-$5. (14%)

The catalogue for Turks Islands, based on CV, can be divided into two sections.

I) The 1867, 1873-79 & 1881  "Queen Victoria" stamps (all the same A1 design) for Turks Islands, and then the many surcharged stamps of 1867-79 based on these "Victoria" A1 issues (43 stamps total), are all quite expensive ($50+ minimum-$hundreds-$thousands). This is clearly an arena for the wealthier specialist.

II) 1881-1894 issues- A1, A2, A3 "Victoria" designs (15 stamps) are generally much more modest in cost ($2-$10+ for 11 stamps).

I don't have any of the 1867-81 stamps (I category), but have some of the 1881-94 stamps ( II category).

Postage stamps inscribed Turks and Caicos Islands were then used after 1900. The next blog post will cover those issues.

A closer look at the stamps and issues
12 Pence = 1 Shilling
1889 Scott 45 1p carmine lake "Victoria"
A1 design
The more affordable stamps for the WW collector begin with the 1882-95 Wmk 2 issue- ten stamps. Several (Scott 45-47) are the A1 design with CV $2+-$4. These are a bargain for the WW collector, considering that the earlier A1 design stamps are quite pricey. ;-)

1882 Scott 49 2 1/2p red brown "Victoria"
Die A (SG Die I)
The rest (six stamps) of the 1882-95 issue are the  De La Rue Victorian key types (design A2)  for Turks Islands.

They consist of Die A (SG Die I) and Die B (SG Die II) types.

1894 Scott 51 1/2p gray green "Victoria"
Die B (SG Die II)
One will need to become familiar with the Die A/B key types for "Victoria". The 1/2p 1882 blue green (Scott 48a) and 1885 dull green (Scott 48) are Die A. The 1894 Scott 51 1/2p gray green (illustrated) is Die B. I don't think color is enough of a consistent characteristic to always separate these stamps: hence the need to know the Die A/B key types.

For the six 1882-95 Victorian Die A/B key type stamps, CV is $2-$10+. 

1889 Scott 55 1p on 2 1/2p red brown
Die A (SG Die I)
In 1889, the 1882 Die A 2 1/2p red brown was surcharged "One Penny".

O.K., but what about the key type differences? Let's take a good look, based on combining information extracted from the Scott and Stanley Gibbons catalogue. (I've also added my own interpretations.)

1889 Scott 55 1p on 2 1/2p red brown close-up
Die A (SG Die I)
1) The groundwork lines vary in thickness, and are not uniformly straight.
2) The vertical color line in front of the throat stops at the sixth line of shading on the neck. (I find this one of the better signs.)

1894 Scott 51 1/2p gray green close-up
Die B (SG Die II)
1) The groundwork lines are thin and straight.
2) The vertical color line in front of the throat stops at the eighth (? or ninth?) line of shading on the neck. (One of the better signs, in my opinion.)

1889 Scott 55 1p on 2 1/2p red brown close-up
Die A (SG Die I)
3) The seventh and eighth lines from the top, in the groundwork, converge where they meet the head.(I find the eight and ninth lines a better example here.)
4) In the band of the crown, there is a small dash in the upper part of the second jewel.
5) The ball of decoration on the second point of the crown have two prominent curvy vertical lines. There is no horizontal separate "smiley" line. (This is my own interpretation. ;-)

1894 Scott 51 1/2p gray green close-up
Die B (SG Die II)
3) The seventh and eighth lines from the top, in the groundwork, are parallel- actually all the groundwork lines are parallel.
4) In the band of the crown, there is no dash in the upper part of the second jewel.
5) The ball of decoration on the second point of the crown have no curvy vertical lines. There is a prominent separate horizontal  "smiley" line. (This is my own interpretation. ;-)

1889 Scott 55 1p on 2 1/2p red brown close-up
Die A (SG Die I)
6) The white space in the coil of the hair above the curl is in "the shape of a pin's head". (Actually, for me the shape is more like a key.)
7) There is a long continuous dark vertical shading line in the white area that separates the front hair from the bun.

1894 Scott 51 1/2p gray green close-up
Die B (Die II)
6) The white space in the coil of the hair above the curl is oblong, with a line of color partially dividing it at the left end.
7) There is only an incomplete short dark vertical shading line in the white area that separates the front hair from the bun.

Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner) has three pages for the 1867-1894 stamps of Turks Islands. All of the major Scott numbers have a space. The first two pages cover the quite expensive CV 1867-1881 issues, and most WW collectors will have not much on those pages.


Turks Islands in '47 BB
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on two lines, shared on the same page with Tahiti and the beginning of Turks and Caicos Islands, has seven spaces. All of the spaces are from the less expensive 1882-1894 era.

There is one "most expensive ($35)" stamp- the 1883 Scott 44 1p orange brown. Since BB specifies the "orange brown" color for the 1p, by rights, this expensive stamp should be put into the space. But there also was an 1889 Scott 45 1p carmine lake (perf 14), and an 1887 Scott 54 1p carmine lake (perf 12) issued. Perhaps they could be candidates for the Turks Islands blank spaces in BB.

Of interest, the 40s BB editions also have an 8th space, which is a blank space, under the 1894-95 year heading (illustrated above). The blank space in the 40s editions is puzzling. Both the current 2014 Scott catalogue, and the 1947 Scott catalogue only show one 1894 stamp (Scott 57) available, and there are no further entries after 1894. What would one put in there?

Checklist

1882-93
44*,46,48 or 51*,52,(45),(47),

1894

57,

Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
1883 Scott 44 1p orange brown ($35)
B) (    ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.
C) *44 is a 1p orange brown, the color specified by BB, and is CV $35. But the 1889 Scott 45 1p carmine lake, the same denomination and design, is CV $2+! I suggest using the 1p carmine lake as a blank space choice.
D) *48 or 51- choice is Die A vs Die B.

Turks and Caicos National Museum, Grand Turks Island
Out of the Blue
I've never been to any of the Caribbean islands, but, with the multiple blogs I've posted for this portion of the world, I feel like I have a certain familiarity. ;-)

Note: Maps and National Museum pic appear to be in the public domain.

Have a comment?

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Turkey in Asia (Anatolia)

1922 Scott 83 10pi dark brown 
"Legendary Gray Wolf"
Quick History
On November 13, 1918, Constantinople (Istanbul) was occupied by French and British troops. The Ottoman Empire collapsed, and the breakup of the Empire was initiated with the August 10, 1920 Treaty of Sevres.

Treaty of Sevres 1920- planned partition of the Ottoman Empire
But the hostile terms of the treaty brought forth a vigorous nationalistic movement, led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The Turkish nationalists fought the Turkish War of Independence. The Nationalist Government was formed in Anakara, and outside of an area around Constantinople, Turkey was controlled by them. 

Turkish War of Independence- Western, Eastern, and Southern Fronts
The stamps of the era are referred to as "Turkey in Asia" or "Anatolia". From 1920 to 1922, stocks of old stamps were overprinted, or revenue stamps were handstamped "Osmanli Postalari 1336" for postal use.

The Liberation of Izmir by the Turkish Army September 9, 1922
The Turkish War of Independence was successful, with the overthrow of the Ottoman Sultanate, the forced withdrawal of Allied forces from Anatolia, and, finally, the establishment of the Republic of Turkey.

Ethnic map of Asia Minor 1914- Armenians in Blue
There were significant number of civilians killed also in the Turkish War of Independence- 260,000 Greeks, and 60,000-250,000 Armenians.

(Then there is the Armenian Genocide by the Ottomans beginning in 1915. Turkey denies this, stating it was just a product of war. The reality is 800,000 - 1,500,000 Armenians died.)

Mustafa Kemal Pasha  (right) with Ismet Pasha, Ankara, 1920
The July, 1923 Treaty of Lausanne created international recognition for the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey.

The Republic was proclaimed on October 29, 1923 in the capital of Ankara. Mustafa Kemal was elected as first President.

1921 Scott 52 5pi red
Overprinted "Osmanli  Postlari 1337"
On Turkish Revenue stamps
Into the Deep Blue
The 2014 Scott Classic Specialized 1840-1940 catalogue has, for Turkey in Asia 1920-1922, 108 major number descriptions. Of those, 15 are CV <$1-$1+, or 14%. The fact is most of the 1920-21 overprinted or surcharged Revenue or Turkish stamps are fairly expensive (CV $tens to $hundreds to $thousands), and naturally the WW collector will not have many. But, the 1922 lithographic pictorial issues are more reasonable, CV wise.

A closer look at the stamps and issues
40 Paras = 1 Piaster
Issues of the Nationalist Government
1920 Scott 1 3pi on 2pa red lilac
Surcharge reads "Angora 3 Piastres"
In 1920, Turkish stamps of 1913-18 were surcharged in black or red by the Nationalist Government. The surcharge here reads "Angora 3 Piastres".

1921 Scott 50 1pi yellow
Overprinted "Osmanli  Postlari 1337"
On Turkish Revenue stamp
Numerous large revenue stamps were handstamped or (here) overprinted in 1920-1921. I count 41 major number revenues of various sorts that were used postally. Most have the "Osmanli Postlari 1336 (or 1337)" overprint. ("1336" and "1337" is the year 1920 or 1921 respectively.)

1921 Scott 54 1pi on 1pi dark red & blue
Hejaz Railway Tax Stamps Overprinted
In 1921, Hejaz Railway tax stamps were used by overprinting, using Turkish inscriptions.

Colorful, yes? 

10pa brown "Turkish warships"
Naval League Labels
(Overprinted in 1921 for Postage)
Five Naval League stamps had pictures of three Turkish warships, and were sold for the benefit of fleet sailors. In 1921, they were overprinted for use as postage.

1922 Scott 78 10pa violet brown
"Pact of Revenge"
In 1922, a large lithographic issue (twelve stamps, each with a unique design) was released. Fortunately, The lower denominations have a modest CV (<$1-$2 for nine stamps), and should be collected by the WW classical era enthusiast.

1922 Scott 82 5pi dark blue "Soldier"
The chosen design and scene topics are clearly related to the Turkish War of Independence, and are intended to reinforce nationalistic fervor in the movement.

1922 Scott 103 3pi rose
"First Parliament House, Ankara"
In 1922, a six stamp set showing the "First Parliament House, Ankara" was produced. This set is also inexpensive (CV <$1-$4+).

1922 Scott J3 2pi red brown
Postage Due
A wonderfully intricate design was used for the lithographic 1922 five stamp postage due set that was issued.

With the successful establishment of the republic on October 29, 1923, the Nationalist Government was supplanted by the Republic of Turkey. Stamps for the Republic were issued beginning in 1923.

Deep Blue
1922 issue in Deep Blue
"First Parliament House, Ankara"
Deep Blue (Steiner) has eleven pages for the 1920-22 issues of the Nationalist Government. All of the major Scott numbers have a space. The first eight pages comprise the 1920-21 overprinted or surcharged revenue or Turkish stamps, and, because of high CV cost, will remain mostly empty for many WW collectors.

1922 Scott 79 20pa blue green "Izmir Harbor"
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on 1/2 page (shared with Turkey Air Post on the last page of the the Turkey country pages), has twelve spaces for the lithographic issues of 1922. Big Blue, probably wisely, ignores all the overprinted or surcharged earlier 1920-21 issues that generally have a high CV.

Coverage is 11%.

There are no expensive (Threshold CV $10) stamps required.

As mentioned, the coverage is confined to the 1922 lithographic pictorial issue- a truncated seven spaces-, and the 1922 "Parliament House, Ankara" issue-  a truncated five spaces.

Checklist

1922
78,81,82,
79,80,(83),(84),

98,99,100,101,102,

Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold): None
B) (    ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.

1922 Scott 81 2pi red brown
"Mosque of Selim, Konya"
Out of the Blue
An extremely interesting chapter in the history of Turkey, with stamp issues to match.

Note: Maps and pics appear to be in the public domain.

Comments appreciated!